The coaching resource can be adapted to any sport (free kick/puck , conversions, free throw, any target sport etc.) but we did this with Weightlifting Ireland to help their lifters and coaches, therefore the free resource contains excerpts of Olympic Weightlifters PPR.
A basic guide to Pre-Performance routines (PPR) is included in the downloadable document (At bottom of post).
What isn’t in the doc is the scientific evidence behind PPR which we will briefly discuss.
Mesagno & Mullane-Grant’s (2010) research is exciting because it tests different components of PPR for effectiveness. As the graph shows, there is a significant performance increase under pressure when athletes have individualised PPR (Extensive PPR line in graph)
A Comparison of Different Pre-Performance Routines as Possible Choking Interventions
It’s fairly conclusive that PPR is beneficial to performance in closed skills (skills without opponents interference). Other research on PPR has shown improvements between 10 and 30% in performance.
PPR is literally the moment before performance measured in seconds, as opposed to minutes and hours. The longer time frame may be called pre-competition preparation. Some of you may be familiar with the story of Michael Phelps’ coach hiding goggles and disrupting his pre-competition preparation which increases anxiety but also gave him exposure to this and such incidents became learning experiences. This is vastly different to the actual mental process of PPR.
With regards to disruption of PPR effecting performance, if it gets interrupted then performance may not be as high but we make the case that PPR would minimise any disruption as it puts the focus on the athlete and the task, as opposed to the disruption; therefore an athlete with a PPR should outperform an athlete without a PPR if both were disrupted equally.
In other words an effective PPR helps you to perform at your best.
We are delighted to release this free coaching resource on Pre-Performance routines. The information contained within the attached PDF is designed to help educate athletes and coaches on how to create and modify Pre-Performance routines. Feel free to share this post with your friends.
We have delivered sport psychology support to GAA free takers, Golfers, Weightlifters and Archers, and delivered workshops on this topic and others, please get in touch if you or your club is interested in applying Sport Psychology to increase your performance.
If your interested in the some of the academic references on PPR check out the following;
- Cotterill, S. (2010). Pre-performance routines in sport: current understanding and future directions. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology,3(2), 132-153.
- Cotterill, S. T., Sanders, R., & Collins, D. (2010). Developing effective pre-performance routines in golf: Why don’t we ask the golfer?. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(1), 51-64.
- Crews, D. J., & Boutcher, S. H. (1986). Effects of structured preshot behaviors on beginning golf performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62(1), 291-294.
- Mesagno, C., & Mullane-Grant, T. (2010). A comparison of different pre-performance routines as possible choking interventions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(3), 343-360.
- Jackson, R. C. (2003). Pre-performance routine consistency: temporal analysis of goal kicking in the Rugby Union World Cup. Journal of sports sciences,21(10), 803-814.